Flea beetle is a jumping beetle of the Chrysomelidae of the blade beetle family. There are an abundant breed of flea beetles about the apple and accepted to be a bookish affliction amidst the farmers and agriculturists.
The flea beetles advance abundant plants and vegetations, but they are admiring arise vegetable crops. Their adeptness to jump like fleas is what concluded up allotment them flea beetles.
The flea beetles accept agleam baby anatomy with beyond legs. Like any added beetles, flea beetles are alive during the bounce and summer. They abound crops during the summer and lay eggs on the abject of the bulb stems. The developed flea beetles augment on foliage like the leaves, bearing baby ‘shotholes’ whereas; the larvae augment on the roots of the plants.
Many breeds of the flea beetles advance altered genitalia of flowers, fruits, and vegetables. However, the developed flea beetles are added acceptable to advance adolescent transplants. Identifying a flea beetle bane is actually easy. If you acquisition a blade attempt with holes, again it is an adumbration that you should assignment on attention your crops.
This has fabricated them the accepted pests on the vegetable crops. However, these beetles occasionally abound on flowers, trees, and accessory shrubs.
The best-accepted flea beetle that raids best home breadth and crops is Crucifer Flea Beetle. In best allotment of Asia and the Americas, flea beetles are the best accepted bread-and-butter pests.
List of Invasive Flea Beetle Breed and their Characteristics:
Characteristics: Attacks an advanced host of plants, primarily banknote and added plants of the Cruciferae family. It is the best damaging breed in the world.
Characteristics: Attacks about every bulb blazon (has widest host range) including beans, squash, corn, lettuce, sunflowers, potatoes, and weeds.
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Flea Beetle Species: Potato Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 1
Characteristics: Attacks mostly potato crops. But they are additionally accepted for amazon bane forth with added nightshade ancestors plants.
Flea Beetle Species: Tobacco Flea Beetles
Generations Per Year: 1
Characteristics: They begin in warmer areas. They abound on Eggplant and some nightshade plants.
Flea Beetle Species: Tuber Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 2eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],’pestwiki_com-banner-1′,’ezslot_2′,650,’0′, 0]));
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Characteristics: Primarily advance potatoes crops. Their larvae account bake-apple injuries in plants.
Flea Beetle Species: Horseradish Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 1 to 2
Characteristics: Infest on horseradish and added alacrity bulb species.
Flea Beetle Species: Apple Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 2 to 3
Characteristics: Their larvae augment on the grape, crabapple, Epilobium,
zauschneria, and added plants. However, the capital accident is acquired by the adult
Flea Beetle Species: Sumac Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 2
Characteristics: Sumac, Currants, and Skunkbrush are occasionally damaged by
Flea Beetle Species: Willow Flea Beetle
Generations Per Year: 1 to 2
Characteristics: Infest on Willow
Flea Beetle Life Cycle
Flea beetles commonly accept 1-2 ancestors per year, although some breed arises thrice during the growing season. During the springtime, the overwintered adults augment on seedlings of plants. However, in the fall, it is the developed baby of the overwintering adults who are apparent agriculture on berry pods, stem, and leaves.
The flea beetles adapt overwintering abreast the cruciferous plants, blade litter, poplar groves, shelterbelts, debris, and grass. They adopt colonizing in aerial density, that is; aural the blade clutter or stem, you can calmly acquisition 150-250 flea beetles/m2.
The flea beetles become alive during April and May back the aboriginal continued eon of summer starts. It can booty a little best if the temperature is still on the colder side.
On the added hand, the actualization additionally depends on the breed of the flea beetle. That is; the pale striped flea beetles appear 2-4 weeks beforehand than those of crucifer flea beetles. In general, the aiguille actualization time occurs back the arena temperature alcove 12-15°C.
When the temperature is cold, the flea beetles tend to hop or airing into adjoining crops and weeds. During that time, they augment on alacrity and canola, or on weeds like flixweed, peppergrass, agrarian mustard, stinkweed, and lamb’s quarters. Afterward, they will move to new seedlings. And, back the temperature becomes favorable and the apprehension calms away, they fly and banish throughout the fields for infestation.
Once they accept commenced feeding, it is time for them to mate. They acquaintance repeatedly. The changeable flea beetle starts laying eggs during May end and continues to do so for 30 beeline days. One changeable flea beetle can lay up to 100 eggs. The flea beetles lay eggs in the clay so that the larvae can augment on the roots of the plants. Moreover, the clay has to be clammy and balmy for the eggs to bear quickly.
It takes about 10-12 canicule for the eggs to bear into larvae. The overwintering adults will die already the eggs are laid. The larvae, afterward hatching, augment on taproots and base hairs of the seedlings. Already the abecedarian development is completed, the larvae pupate in baby earthen cells.
The pupation eon begins from mid-July and continues till October. It takes an absolute of about 7 weeks for a flea beetle egg to appear as a developed beetle.
Identification of Flea Beetles
The developed flea beetles appear from the arena afterward overwintering in aboriginal spring. They adopt coarse and bristling areas for overwintering rather than blooming ones. The developed flea beetles are absolutely baby as compared to the larvae. They ambit is about 1/16 to 1/8 inches long. They accept baby anatomy with continued afterward legs allowance them to accomplish abundant advance while jumping.
The flea beetles accept an agleam brownish-black body. Their anatomy blush includes blue, bronze, gray, brown, black, and added brownish textured colors. Some of the flea beetle breeds accept different patterns on their anatomy like strips.
The changeable flea beetle lays the egg on clammy and balmy clay abreast the abject of a plant. The eggs are smooth, elongated, bare and egg-shaped in shape. The larvae accept absolutely white bodies with an amber arch and an anal plate.
Molting takes abode alert during the 30-day period, area it completes three abecedarian stages. The larvae are about 3-4 mm long. The pupation takes abode in the clay afore they appear out as adults.
What is the Break of Flea Beetle Infestation?
The break and accident affection of flea beetle bane alter from breed to breed and the blazon of hosts attacked. Identifying flea beetle bane is actually easy. In general, they augment on grasses including corn. The actualization of attenuated spots on the leaves is the adumbration that its tissue is removed. This is the aboriginal adumbration of the flea beetle infestation. The agriculture blister runs alongside to the blade veins or sometimes, zig-zag through the vein. This blister gives the blade an asperous appearance.
However, these scars are abashed for developed blah rootworm infestation. But the rootworm tends to eat out ample portions admitting the flea beetles alone eat in a commensurable amount.
The agriculture of flea beetles on the leaves introduces bacterial become on them. Already the bulb gets acutely adulterated by the bacteria, it will ultimately die. On the added hand, lesions will be formed on the leaves as a late-season infection and its after-effects in the crops dehydration down.
In case of plants and crops with broad leaves, the flea beetle bane could begin out by attractive at the bulb leaves. The leaves accept shotholes actualization all over it; again it indicates developed flea beetles are agriculture on it. The beetles tend to bite bottomward the tissue amid the blade veins. The accident appears as if addition has attempted the leaves with a shotgun.
This is one of the adopted methods to analyze flea beetle infestation. During the fall, advance the fields and beam the anatomy of flea beetles. If the citizenry is dense, again it agency that your acreage is infested with flea beetles. Abundant bane can account accident to the axis and leaves of the bulb which leads to crop dabbling and crop thinning.
Most of the flea breed advance a growing bulb to an admeasurement that it banned the plant’s adeptness to heal. Abundant attacks can clean out the absolute crop.
Seedling accident due to an astringent bulb ache is sometimes mistaken for flea beetle infestation. Dugout the damaged plants from the arena and audit its stems, roots, and shoots to analyze if it is a bulb ache or flea beetle damage.
Minimizing Flea Beetle infestation
Flea beetles are the accepted pests, however; the injuries it causes are bush to the crop health. It is all-important to chop off 10-20% of the leaves from the accustomed plants already you accept got the slight adumbration of flea beetle infestation. Plants developed for accessory purposes, comestible greens, potatoes etc are decumbent to flea beetle infestation.
* Cultural Ascendancy (Field Management):
Agronomic practices announcement accelerated bulb advance plays an acute role in abbreviation the aftereffect of flea beetle accident on crops and plants. The advance and actualization can be bigger by burying seeds accepting 95% or aloft formation bulk in the pre-chill test.
On the added hand, the admeasurement of the seeds additionally affairs back it comes to authoritative the infestation. Seeds capricious amid 1.8-2.2 millimeters are added advanced and active to flea beetle attacks. The plants and crops developed from abundant and ample seeds accept beneath flea beetle accident as compared to plants developed from baby and ablaze seeds. Abundant and ample seeds tend to abound with a bigger angle establishment, faster advance rate, college berry yield, and college shoot weights.
Flea beetles like any added beetles adapt balmy and almost ablaze environment. The farmers adopt absolute agriculture as it provides a microclimate for the plants which is beneath ideal for flea beetles to colonize. Tillage afore agriculture will accessible up the clay layers. Moreover, burying into or abreast a bristle can accommodate your bulb a microclimate which is moist, cooler, and beneath ideal for flea beetles to infest. The acknowledgment microclimate will abate the flea beetle abrasion as the acknowledgment altitude slows bottomward the activities of flea beetles. However, this can additionally apathetic bottomward the advance of your crops. Thus, accepted crop aloof is recommended to ensure that the accident is not done over the limit.
The producers are recommended to chase aboriginal agriculture practices as it maximizes the berry yield. Aboriginal agriculture will ensure the bulb alcove its best advance afore the actualization of flea beetles. The acumen abaft aboriginal agriculture is that the absolutely developed plants are added tolerable arise any accident or attack. It can calmly balance from assertive bug damages.
Increasing agriculture bulk is additionally amenable for active flea beetle damages. Added the crops beneath would be the agriculture accident as the flea beetles will advance all over the acreage not the absorption on an accurate plant. College bulb densities and agriculture ante are believed to abate and adulterate the accident to alone plants.
Another abundant way to accord with flea beetle bane is row spacing. The row agreement of 20-30 cm per bulb reduces the flea beetle damage. The acumen is still not explained but the producers say that the abutting agreement provides the plants with microclimate area the ambiance is abundant cooler. Moreover, it is believed that the flea beetles get abashed with all the beheld adverse amid the clay and vegetation.
Crop circling is yet addition adjustment to ascendancy flea beetle infestation. But this action is not accepted by best of the producers as the developed flea beetles overwinter central and alfresco the circumscribed fields and are able to brief to continued distances. However, if we allocution about brassicaceous vegetables, intercropping non-host plants has absolutely provided some able after-effects back it comes to flea beetle damage.
The producers additionally accomplish berry analysis blends area they alloy a commensurable bulk of insecticide-treated seeds with afterwards insecticide-treated seeds and bulb them on the fields.
* Biological Ascendancy and Accustomed Enemies:
Diseases, parasites, and predators comedy an acute role in acclimation flea beetle population. In the present scenario, the biological ascendancy agents are bound in numbers but there are several insects that augment on developed flea beetles.
Lacewings, acreage crickets, babe bugs, analytical bugs, and annual beetles comedy acts as the important biological agents who advise in acclimation the flea beetle population.
Moreover, the braconid wasps parasitize the developed flea beetles but it alone affects the 5% flea beetle population. Parasitism is a accepted biological weapon adjoin the flea beetles but it works boring and the flea beetles accumulate in thousands.
However, it was accurate that a braconid wasp breed from Europe was able to parasitize 50% of the flea beetle citizenry advancing the cruciferous vegetation.
Unfortunately, due to flea beetles carbon in bags in aloof abbreviate time-span, these biological weapons assume to be ineffective.
* Attrition Breeding:
No crop has apparent attrition to flea beetles, but there are some studies that advance the flea beetles alone adopt assertive plants and crucifer hosts.
It began out that the chicken alacrity seedlings accept lower levels of flea beetle bane as compared to added vegetations. This may be due to the actuality that alacrity is affluent in aerial akin of glucosinalbin which best of the beetles abide from consuming.
* Insecticide Ascendancy Options:
The crops and vegetations can be adequate from the flea beetle bane appliance insecticide analysis options. In-furrow and diminutive insecticides were already accepted amidst the farmers and producers but eventually, its appliance was aloof due to its chancy appulse on the environment.
Most farmers and producers adopt alleviative their seeds with neonicotinoid insecticide for authoritative the flea beetle infestation. This insecticide is accepted for triggering systemic activities in plants and ultimately inhibiting afraid advice in flea beetles. It works in a way that the chemicals block the flea beetles’ nicotinoid acetylcholine receptor.
Another advantage is to accouterment the seeds with an insecticide and fungicides afore burying it. It is a boundless convenience and added than 90% of the canola crops are developed appliance this method.
Treating the seeds with fungicides and insecticides will ensure that it repels flea beetles the moment it starts to grow. The berry analysis accessible today for authoritative the flea beetle bane appear with fungicides an insecticides either at college or lower rate. The companies alms pretreated seeds accommodate the best aegis adjoin flea beetle invasion. However, the recommended college ante of the appliance is big-ticket as compared to lower rates. But it can aftereffect in extending the aegis adjoin the flea beetles.
In case, if the acreage is invaded by the aerial citizenry of flea beetles and the provided berry analysis is not accomplishing the trick, it is recommended to use a foliar spray. The use of foliar insecticides will appear accessible back the accident starts. Note that attached the insecticide absorption is all-important if the bane is not advance throughout the field.
On the added hand, the producers who are accumulation foliar insecticides with herbicides should ensure that the accident at the threshold. Applying foliar insecticide afore the accident alcove the bread-and-butter beginning can aftereffect in the flea beetles developing an assertive faculty of attrition arise the insecticides. Also, it can accept an abrogating appulse on the accustomed enemies such as added benign insects.
* Organic Ascendancy and Preventative Measures: Transplant or bulb affected crops to the fields and breadth as backward as accessible to abate the accessible flea beetle attack. You accept to bethink that as backward as accessible agency bulb alone afterward the flea beetles are about to go into overwintering. Also, abstain burying seeds and convenience growing ample and advantageous transplants as abundant as possible. Avail the allowances of allurement crop method. The allurement crop adjustment will do no abuse to the flea beetles but will absolutely booty their apperception off from your capital crop. It works in a way that the allurement crops you abound will be the favorites of these flea beetles. Abound these crops on all the corners of your field, befitting an assertive ambit from the crops that you appetite to protect. Radishes and behemothic mustards prove to be the best allurement crops. To ensure the best security, aerosol the crops that you appetite to assure with insecticides. Ensure that your garden or acreage is chargeless of crop bits and weeds as these things prove to be an admirable abode for the flea beetles, due to the clammy and balmy ambiance it provides. Also, agronomics the acreage on an approved base will annihilate the overwinter flea beetles. The producers and farmers accept additionally claimed to use handheld vacuums, alike the domiciliary ones to blot out the flea beetles. This address can absolutely abate the annoyance numbers. Addition able way to abate flea beetle bane is to use the mulching technique. It is one of the simplest techniques acclimated by the producers and farmers for annoyance control. It is an action of accouterment the alluvium with a band of grass, leaves, crop residues, twigs, etc. Mulching your acreage will accomplish it difficult for the changeable flea beetles to acquisition an abode to lay eggs. You can use the advice of flea beetles’ accustomed enemies like wasps, tachinid fly, soil-dwelling nematodes, and added insects that casualty on flea beetles. You can use fennel, daisies, alyssum, cosmos, dill, etc to allure these insects to your acreage or garden. Convenience burying accessible plants that can put up with adumbration as flea beetles adapt nesting area there are abundant sun rays. Bulb aggressive verities of crops that accommodate adhering and bearded leaves. Flea beetles will not advance such plants due to assertive chemicals and attributes. Inter-planting is addition adjustment to abstain flea beetle attack. For example- Bulb cabbages with radishes as the flea beetles will adopt radishes over cabbages. You can adapt yourself a bootleg aerosol to be acclimated adjoin the flea beetles. Adapt an admixture of water, aqueous soap, and abrading alcohol. Put it in an aerosol bottle. Aerosol this admixture on affected plants. The farmers and producers are additionally accepted for appliance catnip tea sprays, pepper sprays, and garlic sprays on affected plants. Appliance adhesive accessories can abate the citizenry of flea beetles but it will deceive the benign insects (common enemies) as well.
Cultural ascendancy is the best way to ascendancy the citizenry of flea beetles. The overwintering larvae can be dead during cultivating and hoeing.